Tuesday, August 15, 2017

VETS | Spy Museum and the O.S.S.

Montreal, 1948. Front row L to R: John, Spike
(O.S.S.), Liz, Hilda, Sheila. Back row,
L to R: Olga, Randal, Brigid. 
August 15, 2017 – The role and successes of individual American spies in World War II could not be discussed for decades after the war.

These intelligence workers were gagged when the war was over and they returned to civilian life.

1. Malcolm Nance

A member of the board of the expanding Spy Museum in Washington, D.C., Malcolm Nance, was visiting East Hampton, N.Y. over the weekend to promote his books – Hacking ISIS and The Plot to Hack America (both New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2017).

Malcolm is interested in the stories of spies from a family perspective and is seeking memorabilia related to them fro the museum He spoke with Michael and me about our fathers' work in espionage.

This post is about these two Americans in Europe during the war doing intelligence work, how their children came to find out what their fathers did, and the connection between them.

2. E. R. (Spike) Marlin, Dublin and London

My Dad, E. R. "Spike" Marlin took a competitive exam to work in  FDR's government in 1933 and was one of about 300 who was awarded a position, out of thousands who applied. His first job was at the Farm Credit Administration under Henry Morgenthau, Jr. – before Morgenthau succeeded William H. Woodin as Secretary of the Treasury.

L to R: Michael Collins and Malcolm Nance.
Photo by JT Marlin.
When Germany began invading its neighbors, my Dad was recruited by the O.S.S. to go to the Republic of Ireland under the light cover of an assignment in the U.S. Mission to Ireland (i.e., the 26 southern counties making up the Irish Free State or Éire).

Spike's primary qualifications were that he had (1) already established a decade-long U.S. Government service record in Washington, D.C. and (2) as a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin he  knew many residents of Éire.

The United States recognized the Irish Free State in 1924, after various legislative processes established partition between the six counties that make up Northern Ireland and the 26 that make up the Irish Free State. The United States did not send a full Ambassador to Éire until 1950. From 1940 to 1947 the U.S. "Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary" (shortened in practice to "Minister") was David Gray, Jr. (1870-1968), a novelist and playwright whose two main qualifications were that he (1) was married to Eleanor Roosevelt's aunt and close confidante Maude Hall Gray (1877-1952) and that he (2) had spent a lot of time in Cork writing a book and enjoying the excellent local hunting and fishing. Gray, who was 70, told his predecessor he wanted the post (http://bit.ly/2uYmwN3) and it was offered to Gray when the previous incumbent returned home.

Gray was unique as a U.S. envoy in that he was actively hostile to its leader, Éamon de Valera. As an opponent of the neutrality of the Éire government, Gray accused the Irish Free State of cooperation with the Nazi Axis. O.S.S. chief "Wild Bill" Donovan was sympathetic to the Éire government's need to maintain its neutrality given the recent history of partition, and wanted to find out whether Éire was cooperating fully with British intelligence. My father, reporting to Francis Pickens Miller in London, collected evidence that showed that the Éire government was working closely with British intelligence. Both the presence of the O.S.S. and my Dad's success in collecting the information that Donovan expected him to find were thorns in Gray's side.

Eventually, having done his work, Spike was reassigned to O.S.S. in London and a new spy was recruited who was not assigned to the U.S. mission and had the cover (revealed in a book Spies in Ireland) of a movie producer. I have spoken with the author.

After the war was over and the O.S.S. was disbanded, Spike was sent to San Francisco as a Budget Bureau representative to the formation of the U.N. He was seconded to the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) as Secretary and headed the secretariat for the creation of the ICAO in Chicago. FDR in January 1939 ramped up his interest in manufacturing airplanes and that year he showed his interest in aviation by making Orville Wright's birthday on August 19 (this coming Saturday) as National Aviation Day. Spike then joined the United Nations and became Director of Technical Assistance for the ICAO in Montreal. He spent the next two decades working for the U.N., ending as the highest-ranking American at the UNHCR in Geneva under Ambassador Félix Schnyder (who was the High Commissioner in 1960-65) and Sadruddin Khan. Spike then served in the State Department for three years in 1964-67 when I was working across the road for the Federal Reserve Board.

I didn't discover that my Dad had been in the O.S.S. until the 1970s, when a Ph.D. student contacted me with questions.

Sgt. Tom Collins
3. Tom Collins, Bletchley Park

My neighbor Michael Collins didn't find out that his father Tom was in the cryptography area until the end of the last century.

Sgt. Tom Collins was selected at 19 years of age to accompany the American Dragon 1 cryptographic machine, essentially an early computer.

His primary qualification is that in his civilian life before his war service, he was a telephone installer for Western Electric and would understand the wiring protocols for the machine that the company developed with U.S. cryptographers to crack the German code. He accompanied the Dragon 1 to Bletchley Park and spent year at the Park assisting British cryptographers under Turing with the maintenance of the Dragon 1.

References

1. Malcolm Nance: Hackers and MICE
2. E. R. (Spike) Marlin: Origins of the O.S.S.Post at ICAO
3. Tom Collins and his work in Bletchley:  CRYPTOGRAPHY | Americans at Bletchley Park . VET STORIES | Tom Collins, 1921-2011 .  BLETCHLEY | U.S. Contribution to British Cryptography . VETS | The Funeral of Tom Collins
4. Spy Museum: Spies' Choices

Saturday, August 12, 2017

VETS | Sgt. Tom Collins Funeral, May 21, 2011

Sgt. Thomas L. Collins,
1921-2011. Photo courtesy
of his sons.
May 22, 2011 – Sgt. Thomas L. Collins suffered a major heart attack on Wednesday morning, May 18, and did not recover. He was just one month short of his 90th birthday. 

The 2010 Memorial Day Service at which his wartime achievements were celebrated was his last.

During visiting hours on May 20, the local post of the Veterans of Foreign Wars paid its respects with a special service.

The Funeral Service was held yesterday at the Springs Community Presbyterian Church, which could not contain the large number of people who attended. The service was led by Rev. Anthony L. Larson, Pastor. In addition, Rev. George Wilson, former pastor, delivered a homily, speaking about the important ways in which the deceased contributed to the communities he belonged to.

Cedar Lawn Cemetery
Honor Guard Folds Flag. Photo by JT Marlin.
Thomas L. Collins, III and Brendan deMar Collins, grandsons of the deceased, shared memories of their grandfather's loyalty, determination and eagerness to help others. In addition to the grandsons, the pallbearers were Bobby Jones, Tim Miller, Tim Taylor, and Charles E. Miller, Jr.

Guest organist Bob Mulford came out of retirement to provide music for the occasion. He served as organist for the church over more than three decades. Among the hymns were one of Sgt. Collins's favorites, "Beulah Land".

During the Committal at Cedar Lawn Cemetery, an honor guard played taps, folded the flag and presented it to Anne Miller Collins, widow of the deceased. (See photos.) A reception for family and friends was provided at the Springs Fire Department.
Cedar Lawn Cemetery
Mrs. Anne Miller Collins accepts flag at Cedar Lawn
Cemetery. Photo by JT Marlin.

In lieu of flowers, the family has asked that memorial gifts be directed to the Springs Church or the Springs Ambulance Service.



RUSSIA | Hackers and MICE

Malcolm Nance
Malcolm Wrightson Nance (born September 20, 1961) is an expert on protecting the United States from terrorism. He is an author and media commentator on terrorism, intelligence, insurgency and torture. He is a former United States Navy senior chief petty officer, specializing in naval cryptology.

Nance is much in demand as a speaker on the history, personalities, and organization of jihadi radicalization and al-Qaeda, and the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL); Southwest Asian and African terror groups, and counterinsurgency and asymmetric warfare.

Fluent in Arabic, he is active in the field of national security policy.
In 2014, he became the executive director of the Terror Asymmetrics Project on Strategy, Tactics and Radical Ideologies (TAPSTRI), a think tank based in  Hudson, New York.

I think he is a true American hero in his dedication to protecting his country. In 2017, he had two books published Hacking ISIS and The Plot to Hack America (New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2017).

I first heard about the second book via friends in Geneva and Florida. I have a copy of it and I was drawn to a part of his book where he discusses what the KGB and today's Russian equivalent look for in potential recruits to the Russian team – i.e., people who can be used as spies, apologists, sympathizers or "even opponents" (p. 43).

Nance talks about what the U.S. Government looks for in recruiting an "asset". He says the CIA uses an acronym, MICE, to help identify a good prospect. MICE "stands for Money, Ideology, Coercion (or Compromise), and Ego or Excitement." The idea is that the asset owner is the CAT and the assets are owned or played with.

The acronym could be shortened to ME and the message about what they want is clear – they cater to people obsessed by Money and Ego. Assets are recruited by a promise of Money or something else the individual might want like available women, and by an appeal to the person's Ego or wish for Excitement.

Retired KGB General Oleg Kalugin was open about using women as lures for getting information. This was the heart of Ian Fleming's novel From Russia with Love. But the most sought-after assets in the West, said KGB defector Yuri Bezmenov, are "Egocentric narcissists,"... (p. 45). To which Nance adds, ..."like Trump".

Monday, March 6, 2017

WW2 | Mar 6—Dutch Resistance Ambushes SS Gen. Hanns Rauter

Lt. Gen. Hanns Rauter,
SS Commander in Holland
Mar 6—This day in 1945 the Dutch Resistance (Verzet) ambushed a truck headed for Luftwaffe troops in Appeldoorn.

The truck contained food and SS leader Lt. Gen. Johann Baptist Albin (Hanns) Rauter. 

The Resistance group killed all the SS troops on the truck except Gen. Rauter, who was wounded and pretended to be dead. During the week after the ambush, the German SS executed 263 Dutch people in retaliation for the ambush.

The Dutch Resistance was one of the fiercest of all the underground movements in Nazi-occupied Europe. The Dutch foreign minister in a postwar account of life under Nazi occupation wrote:
“The Dutch never accepted the German contention that… the war was over. [T]heir acts of resistance and sabotage grew more audacious as time passed.”
Acts of resistance and sabotage included
  • Sheltering onderduikers (underdivers), including Allied soldiers and pilots who either parachuted or crash-landed within Dutch territory, Jews in Holland, and men who were ordered to report for transport to Germany to work in the factories.
  • Bringing onderduikers out of the Netherlands.
  • Killing collaborators and German SS and Wehrmacht troops separated from larger contingents.
  • Bombing Nazi sites such a record centers that kept track of people to be deported (and most likely killed by starvation or poison gas). 
  • Stealing food and coupons and ID cards from SS and police centers.
  • Creating counterfeit money that was used to finance Resistance groups.
The Resistance was composed of representatives from all segments of Dutch society, ranging from the most conservative to communists, although most leading communists were targeted and wiped out by the Nazis in the first years after they invaded Holland in May 1940. Because the élite racist SS oversaw Holland (the Wehrmacht troops were not so aggressive about targeting civilians), the Resistance was closely watched and groups were forced to operate independently of one another. Families were key units during the Resistance because they could trust one another.

Gen. Hanns Rauter was head of the SS in Holland and answered directly to Heinrich Himmler, the SS commander. In February 1941, a strike broke out in Amsterdam among Dutch workers to protest the round-up of almost 400 Dutch Jews. Rauter ordered the SS and German troops to open fire on the strikers, killing 11. The Jews, whom the strikers were trying to protect, were deported to Buchenwald and all were dead by the fall.

Under Rauter's guidance, a special block in the Schenevingen prison—nicknamed by the Dutch the Orange Hotel—was built for "political prisoners", i.e., Resistance workers. During the four years of this block, 28,000 people were detained here indefinitely, of whom 738 men and 21 women died here or nearby on the dunes, the Waalsdorpervlakte, where the Cemetery of Heroes is now located.

In his retaliations for assaults on Nazis and collaborators, Rauter equated the death of one Nazi to ten Dutch reprisal executions victims and one killed Dutch collaborator with three Dutch reprisals. During 1944 these numbers sharply increased with the rise of Resistance violence.

In 1945, near the end of the war, Rauter was riding in an SS truck filled with food destined for a Luftwaffe base near Apeldoorn. Young members of the Dutch Resistance ambushed the truck to get the food inside. The "Hunger Winter" of 1944-45 left much of occupied Holland close to famine conditions, and the Resistance group was determined to save lives by seizing the food. They did not know Rauter was in the truck when it was attacked.

After WW2, SS Gen. Rauter was tried for war crimes by the Dutch court in Den Haag. He was found guilty and sentenced to death. He appealed the sentence at Nuremberg in 1949, but the sentence was upheld and he was executed that year. That was the year that my grandmother, Olga Boissevain, who lost both of her sons to the war, died.

Clip of trial is here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-4SzZPjr9Zs

Sunday, July 10, 2016

WW2 | July 10–Battle of Britain Begins

RAF pilots scrambling. My uncle Willem was an
RAF pilot. He was shot down over Laval, France
 on June 10, 1944 and is buried there.
This day in 1940, the Germans began bombing Britain, the beginning of the "Battle of Britain" that lasted three and a half months–a significant turning point of World War II, as at the end of the bombing, Germany’s Luftwaffe failed to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force.

As Prime Minister Winston Churchill said: "Never in the field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few."

Britain’s decisive victory saved the country from a ground invasion and possible occupation by German forces and showed that air power alone could be used to win a major battle.

On the first day, 120 German bombers and fighters struck a British shipping convoy in the Channel, while 70 more attacked dockyards in South Wales. Britain had only 600 fighters while the Germans had 1,300. But:
  • Britain had an an effective radar system.
  • Spitfires could make tighter turns Germany’s ME109s, enabling it to elude pursuers and come up behind them. 
  • The British Hurricanes could carry 40mm cannon. These planes shot down, with American Browning machine guns, more than 1,500 Luftwaffe planes. 
  • The German single-engine fighters had limited flight radius and their bombers lacked bomb-load capacity to cause permanent damage. 
  • Britain had the advantage of a unified command, while German infighting was weakened by poor timing and intelligence. 
  • The British people were undaunted. When the government asked for all available aluminum to the brought to he Ministry of Aircraft Production to turn into airplanes, the public responded.

Thursday, June 9, 2016

JOE MCCARTHY | June 9–Squelched by Welch

Sen. Joseph McCarthy
This day in 1954, Sen. Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisc.) confronted Joseph N. Welch, special counsel for the Army. McCarthy claimed that a young associate in Hall & Dorr, Welch's law firm, had been a long-time member of an organization that was a “legal arm of the Communist Party.” Welch was stunned and said, famously:
Until this moment, Senator, I think I never really gauged your cruelty or your recklessness. Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last? 
A few minutes later, the audience burst into applause. It marked the end of McCarthy’s power, which had steadily risen from his February 1950 claim that “hundreds” of “known Communists” were in the Department of State.

McCarthy led the Red Scare, convincing millions of Americans that communists had infiltrated America. Behind closed doors,  the McCarthy hearings smeared a wide swath of civil servants and private citizens, destroying many careers. Prior to 1953, the Republican Party tolerated him because his attacks were directed at Democrats, especially Harry S. Truman. When Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower entered the White House in 1953, however, McCarthy continued his increasingly erratic charges. This became unacceptable to his President and Party. Rather than taking on McCarthy directly, which might have backfired, Ike undermined the senator behind the scenes.

McCarthy was annoyed that the U.S. Army was taking away one of his staff members, who worked with Roy Cohn. So he charged in early 1954 that the U.S. Army was “soft” on communism. As Chairman of the Senate Government Operations Committee, he opened hearings on this subject. Joseph Welch, an outside lawyer from Hale & Dorr in Washington, represented the Army–and the President as well, since Ike had a special affection for the Army. During the hearings, Welch responded to all of McCarthy’s charges. The senator became bellicose, shouting “point of order, point of order”. He said that one highly decorated general was a “disgrace” to his uniform. Welch responded with the comment at the end of the first paragraph above.

One week later, the hearings closed. McCarthy was condemned by the Senate for contempt of his colleagues in December 1954. During the next two-and-a-half years, McCarthy succumbed to alcoholism and in 1957 died, at 48, in office.

Comment

Alexander Forest was hired by General Eisenhower to work on the Nuremberg trials and then on the McCarthy Hearings. His skill with both German and Russian as well as English made him valuable in dealing with international issues. His birth name was Goldberg and he took the surname Forest when he came to the United States, probably before the outbreak of war in 1939.

His sister Anya Goldberg (Anna Ormont after she emigrated to Canada) remained in Holland and was sheltered by Bob Boissevain and his family along with her parents. The Boissevains were given a Yad Vashem award after the war; the father of the family died in concentration camp but his guests all survived. The wartime story is told here.

Thursday, June 2, 2016

BLOG VIEWS | 30K–Most-Read Posts

John Tepper Marlin in NYC. Photo
by Alice Tepper Marlin.
June 2016 – This blog, Warriors-Families, has just passed 30,000 page views. I try to post on this blog when the stories are about military or peace issues, but everything overlaps with everything else... 

Page views of my blogs on blogspot.com together are now past the  1.1 million mark.

Thank you for reading!

Here are the most-read posts for the month of May 2016. I am continuing to update the first on the list based on new information. When you see a June 2016 or later update in the subject line, it will be up to date. The Boer War post, #3, mentioning Charles Boissevain, was added only yesterday and will surely rise to #1 in a few days.

WW2 | 8. Hiding Jews in Holland–Bob Boissevain (Up...
Dec 2, 2014, 1 comment
US NAVY | Oct. 13–Navy's 240th Birthday
Oct 12, 2015
BOER WAR | May 31–Peace Treaty Signed
Jun 1, 2016
R.I.P. | Michael Intriligator, Peace and Security ...
Jul 8, 2014
FRANCE | June 10–Remembering Airmen Downed 70 Year...
Jun 13, 2014
VETS 3 | VA Loans–NYC Issues
Jun 11, 2013
VET STORY 2 | Franklin D'Olier, Founded American L...
Sep 17, 2013
WW2 | 12. Holland after the War (Updated Feb. 16, ...
Nov 2, 2014
VET STORY 8 | Edgar Jadwin, Author, "From a Milita...
Mar 5, 2016
ART BIZ | "Hope", Museum of Visionary Art - Yanni ...
Nov 6, 2015